Boris Johnson lost his second attempt to call an early general election in his sixth Commons defeat since becoming prime minister.
MPs voted by 293 to 47 in favour of the motion, short of the required threshold to trigger an election.
At the end of the business, parliament was suspended by the government for five weeks. The MPs opposed to a no-deal Brexit of the required votes which would have an election.
The government, under the Fixed Term Parliaments Act, required two-thirds majority to trigger an early general election.